European Union competition law - Wikipedia
Welcome to the ESU National Shakespeare Competition! to life and learn to express his words with understanding, feeling and clarity; meet local. Competition. Lucy Ingrams and Sean Lusk were named the winners of the £10, Poetry and Fiction prizes respectively. Competition. Poet Mona. A still from the winning film, 'Inside Himalayan Lakes'. as the winning entry of the Communicate Your Science Video Competition.
On the other, the Arab—Israeli conflict appeared to be getting closer to achieving peace after the Madrid Conference and the Oslo Accords As well, Khader states that the Gulf War ofthe Algerian crisis from onwards and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism throughout the Arab world are also important factors in Europe's new relations with the Mediterranean countries based on security concerns.
The Palestinian AuthoritySyria and Algeria argued that resistance movements against foreign occupation should not be included in this definition. A proposal to establish a "Mediterranean Union", which would consist principally of Mediterranean states, was part of the election campaign of Nicolas Sarkozy during the French presidential election campaign in During the campaign Mr.
Sarkozy said that the Mediterranean Union would be modelled on the European Union with a shared judicial area and common institutions. The European Commission saying that while initiatives promoting regional co-operation were good, it would be better to build them upon existing structures, notable among them being the Barcelona process.
In particular she objected to the potential use of EU funds to fund a project which was only to include a small number of EU member states. There were similar economic concerns in the loss of civil society and similar human rights based policies. Duplication of policies from the EU's police and judicial area was a further worry. At the end of February of that year, France's minister for European affairs, Jean-Pierre Jouyetstated that "there is no Mediterranean Union" but rather a "Union for the Mediterranean" that would only be "completing and enriching" to existing EU structures and policy in the region.
Turkey also agreed to take part in the project following a guarantee from France that it was no longer intended as an alternative to EU membership.
Union for the Mediterranean. It was presented as a new phase Euro-Mediterranean Partnership with new members and an improved institutional architecture which aimed to "enhance multilateral relations, increase co-ownership of the process, set governance on the basis of equal footing and translate it into concrete projects, more visible to citizens. Now is the time to inject a new and continuing momentum into the Barcelona Process. More engagement and new catalysts are now needed to translate the objectives of the Barcelona Declaration into tangible results.
Global Forum on Competition - Global Forum on Competition
A rotating co-presidency was set up, held jointly by one EUmember country and one Mediterranean partner. France and Egypt were the first countries to hold this co-presidency. The presence of the Arab League at all meetings is written into the rules. A secretariat with a separate legal status and its own statutes was created. Its headquarters were established in Barcelona. The fact that the Union for the Mediterranean is launched as a new phase of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership means that the Union accepts and commits to maintain the acquis of Barcelona, the purpose of which is to promote "peace, stability and prosperity" throughout the region Barcelona, 2.
Therefore, the four chapters of cooperation developed in the framework of the Barcelona Process during thirteen years remain valid: This fourth chapter was included at the 10th Anniversary Euro-Mediterranean Summit held in Barcelona in The objective to establish a Free Trade Area in the Euro-Mediterranean region by and beyondfirst proposed at the Barcelona Conference, was also endorsed by the Paris Summit of This broad project encompasses many initiatives that target good environmental governance, access to drinkable water, water management, pollution reduction and protection of the Mediterranean biodiversity.
Finally, competition also exists between governments.
Each country or nationality struggles for world dominance, power, or military strength. For example, the United States competed against the Soviet Union in the Cold War for world power, and the two also struggled over the different types of government in these cases representative democracy and communism. The result of this type of competition often leads to worldwide tensions, and may sometimes erupt into warfare.
The Olympic Games are regarded as the international pinnacle of sports competition. While some sports and games such as fishing or hiking have been viewed as primarily recreational, most sports are considered competitive.
The majority involve competition between two or more persons sometimes using horses or cars. For example, in a game of basketballtwo teams compete against one another to determine who can score the most points.
When there is no set reward for the winning team, many players gain a sense of pride. In addition, extrinsic rewards may also be given. Athletes, besides competing against other humans, also compete against nature in sports such as whitewater kayaking or mountaineeringwhere the goal is to reach a destination, with only natural barriers impeding the process. A regularly scheduled for instance annual competition meant to determine the "best" competitor of that cycle is called a championship.
Baseballa competitive sport Competitive sports are governed by codified rules agreed upon by the participants.
Violating these rules is considered to be unfair competition. Thus, sports provide artificial not natural competition; for example, competing for control of a ball, or defending territory on a playing field is not an innate biological factor in humans. Athletes in sports such as gymnastics and competitive diving compete against each other in order to come closest to a conceptual ideal of a perfect performance, which incorporates measurable criteria and standards which are translated into numerical ratings and scores by appointed judges.
Sports competition is generally broken down into three categories: While most sports competitions are recreation, there exist several major and minor professional sports leagues throughout the world. The Olympic Gamesheld every four years, is usually regarded as the international pinnacle of sports competition. Education[ edit ] Competition is a major factor in education. On a global scale, national education systems, intending to bring out the best in the next generation, encourage competitiveness among students through scholarships.
Countries such as England and Singapore have special education programmes which cater for specialist students, prompting charges of academic elitism. Upon receipt of their academic results, students tend to compare their grades to see who is better.
In severe cases, the pressure to perform in some countries is so high that it can result in stigmatization of intellectually deficient students, or even suicide as a consequence of failing the exams; Japan being a prime example see Education in Japan. This has resulted in critical re-evaluation of examinations as a whole by educationalists[ citation needed ]. Critics of competition as a motivating factor in education systems, such as Alfie Kohnassert that competition actually has a net negative influence on the achievement levels of students, and that it "turns all of us into losers" Kohn Economist Richard Layard has commented on the harmful effects, stating "people feel that they are under a great deal of pressure.
They feel that their main objective in life is to do better than other people. That is certainly what young people are being taught in school every day. And it's not a good basis for a society. Students with a high level of agency thrive on competition, are self-motivated, and are willing to risk failure.
Compared to their counterparts who are low in agency, these students are more likely to be flexible, adaptable and creative as adults. The Albee Award, sponsored by the Yale Drama Series, is among the most prestigious playwriting awards.
Union for the Mediterranean - Wikipedia
Game of chance In Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, competitions or lottos are the equivalent of what are commonly known as sweepstakes in the United States. The correct technical name for Australian consumer competitions is a trade promotion lottery or lottos. A trade promotion lottery or competition is a free entry lottery run to promote goods or services supplied by a business.
An example is where you purchase goods or services and then given the chance to enter into the lottery and possibly win a prize. A trade promotion lottery can be called a lotto, competition, contest, sweepstake, or giveaway.
- GeoTalk: Meet Zakaria Ghazoui, winner of the Communicate your Science Video Competition in 2015!
- European Union competition law
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Such competitions can be games of luck randomly drawn or skill judged on an entry question or submissionor possibly a combination of both.
People that enjoy entering competitions are known as compers. Many compers attend annual national conventions. In over members of the online competitions community of lottos.
Social psychologistsfor instance, study the nature of competition.
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They investigate the natural urge of competition and its circumstances. They also study group dynamicsto detect how competition emerges and what its effects are. Sociologistsmeanwhile, study the effects of competition on society as a whole. In addition, anthropologists study the history and prehistory of competition in various cultures.
They also investigate how competition manifested itself in various cultural settings in the past, and how competition has developed over time. Competitiveness Many philosophers and psychologists have identified a trait in most living organisms which can drive the particular organism to compete.
This trait, called competitiveness, is viewed as an innate biological trait [ citation needed ]which coexists along with the urge for survival. Competitiveness, or the inclination to compete, though, has become synonymous with aggressiveness and ambition in the English language. More advanced civilizations integrate aggressiveness and competitiveness into their interactionsas a way to distribute resources and adapt.
Many plants compete with neighboring ones for sunlight. However, Stephen Jay Gould and others have argued that as one ascends the evolutionary hierarchy, competitiveness the survival instinct becomes less innate, and more a learned behavior.
Consequently, if survival requires competitive behaviors, the individual will compete, and if survival requires co-operative behaviors, the individual will co-operate. We investigate the links between climate, erosion and tectonics in the Himalaya using a variety of tools that span the geoanalytical spectrum. My research topic is on the influence of tectonic versus climatic controls on erosion and exhumation rates in the Quaternary and understanding the Holocene evolution of the monsoon in Western Nepal based on river sediment and lake sediment cores.
I am a geologist and I am doing a PhD in hydrogeophysics over groundwater storage related problems in karst environments.
Some of our readers may yet not be familiar with the competition, can you tell us a little more about it and what made you decide to take part in the competition? This competition gave us, as scientists, the opportunity to promote our work and share it to a large audience, broader than our good old scientific community.
Making a video is a perfect way to show what our research focuses on and how the environment we study it evolves. I had already done some filming during previous fieldwork at an Indonesian volcano. That project was bigger and is still in production, though. I have also completed a master in film writing during my scholarship at the University of Brussels. What inspired you to film your fieldwork and submit the entry to the competition?
We really wanted to share our human and scientific adventure with others. Not only for the outreach aspect of our project but mainly to broadcast our passion. When Zak asked me to join him on his mission to Himalaya, we already knew that we could come back with amazing shots. Then came the idea to make a short clip over the mission itself. It was only a few weeks after we got back from Nepal that we became aware of the Communicate Your Science Competition.
After looking at our rushes unedited footagewe thought that it was possible to make our video fitting for the competition. As we wanted no voice over in the film, we asked Bakthi Mills, a graphic designer friend of ours, to create an animation that could illustrate the core sampling process. As for the rest, we were convinced that the images spoke for themselves. Meet Zakaria and Arnoud.
The footage was the most exciting part for us.