This paper examined the relationship between the Mass Media and Government in a society like Nigeria, with a view to ascertaining the impact of each one's. the relationship previous presidents have had with the media and to if the U.S. government were in control of the press, and explain why. AN ANALYSIS OF THE MEDIA AND GOVERNMENT RELATIONSHIP Yusuf Yüksel ABSTRACT This article analyzed the relationship between the media and.
According to Sambepg. It is an inherent interdependent relationship that can plunge the entire society into chaos and disorder if one substructure is found to dysfunction. Speaking about Professor Akinfeleye, he said, while attempting to be neutral in his assessment of the relationship between the government and the media, the academic dwelt on the power of the media, its influence in the society and the inherent loophole in the freedom of information law among others.
They both reinforced the general belief that the media is powerful as the Fourth Estate of the Realm, while I also responded that the government seems to be more powerful because all the other Estates: While the two argued that government and the Media cannot be permanent Friends but Loyal Opponents, I advanced the view that the spokespersons in government can be friends with the media on behalf of their organisations through mutual respect and dignified reciprocal relationship.
Professor Akinfeleye emphatically supported the submission of former America President, Thomas Jefferson who said that if he was to choose between a Government without a Press, or a Press without a Government, he would not hesitate to choose the latter! This submission I argued, cannot hold if every person is investigating and probing into one another as a reporter, without a law by legislators to protect the people, and the existence of the judiciary to adjudicate over disputes and the executive arm to check excesses and unethical practices.
Such a society, I pointed out can only exist in a jungle, where there are no rules of law but animalistic interpersonal relationship.
There is no problem with any government. Antics of some characters in government create the negative perceptions about public institutions. Added to the unbecoming and petty behaviours of some officials in government is the reality that public information management is very weak largely due to unskilled manpower, ill-equipped departments and political interference where a seeming straightforward and truthful information is deliberately distorted for egocentric ambitions of principals.
In fact the Freedom of Information Act FOI could not have been a necessity if the public information officers have been allowed to discharge their roles responsibly and professionally. A study and adherence to basic principles of Public Relations could be a clear guide for spokespersons rather than the fire brigade approach and combatant posture of such image managers to simple issue management.
Conclusion The reality of the relationship between the Media and Government is that both serve to monitor and check the excesses of the other. Jos University Press Sambe, J. Under this condition, the media dominant group becomes the not inevitable help us reach out the world which is inevitably general tendency of the media Entman However, hegemony is an abstract selected under different motivations with concept that is not testable in a specific way.
Although propaganda model does Although indexing theory recognizes the not directly refer to hegemony, it provides a disagreement of elites in the first place, it is testable theory which basically includes the limited to explain the situations why political components of sustaining hegemonic power of leaders sometimes deviate from certain lines, governments over the system by using the sometimes not, the role of public and media.
In this model, the ownership profit journalists, news text, and how they are related oriented media giantsadvertising main to each other Entman In order incomeheavy reliance to official sources for to address the deficiencies of these approaches, information beat system, PR operations of Entmanproposes cascade model government, use of expertflak negative which will be explained in the following responses to a media statement and programsection together with framing which is needed and ideology help elites to manage news and to understand the model.
In the following period, many disagreement is central Bennett ; Entman definitions of frame and framing have The indexing approach argues that when flourished with some common and distinctive there is a consensus between elites on a certain features. For instance, Gitlin Thus, the role of media for framing is inevitable part of producing news.
These models are framing in the cascade model, we need to focus based on mostly the events of the pre-Cold War on the process of news framing. Thus, all the define a problem promote particular forces in the system try to optimize their perceptions, interpretation, evaluation, and control over the events with different degree of solution that benefit one side while obscuring power. This depends on the interaction of four references Reese, Gandy and Grant When events are provide a good example of the importance of congruent with the cultural schemas of a framing.
While Justice and Development Party society, it is more likely to be accepted and AKP promote a particular problem definition supported by the public and the media.
Entman Opposition Parties highlight the content of or the terrorist attack to civil citizens in these documents to influence the public the Kumrular street, the government, public, opinion in a different way. However, the media have public opinion.
The Relationship between the Government and the Media | Richard Imhoagene - realestateforms.info
The main point is that political more autonomy when events are ambiguous. In this sense, it governments to manage the media. In terms of produce events and decide which mental motivation, governments try to package frames associations to activate.
The media most in a way that fits the motivations of media staff probably report it Keisen However, such as autonomy, objectivity, and other the interaction among elites, media, media normative values to get it circulated Entman frames and the public lead to a complex system Power and strategy works as of interaction which cannot be simply external forces.
At the same time, the For these purposes, governments seek to power of governments depends on the approval deploy strategies to communicate their ratings and effectiveness of administration. The messages rather than expect their messages to media staff also has some independent power be simply instrumentalized by the media.
Lastly, government to influence media agenda and strategies are related with word choice, frames which, in turn, benefit government in information distribution and withholding, terms of public opinion Kohut In timing which is mostly defined by political this view, political actors encompass the actors Entman The more skillfully the governments for this purpose. The success of governments apply power, strategy, and these strategies depends on national context, motivations, the more completely it will issue context, individual context and succeed in managing the news and having application of news management skillfully public opinion on its side.
Within this context, considering these different factors at work the next section deals with how political actors Entman In terms of news management, governments have a set of tools that they can use effectively. A number of Governments generally try to reinforce the studies show a heavy reliance on official circulation of their preferred frames on the sources on foreign issues by the media staff media and reach the public to get its attention Herman and Chomsky, ; Reese, This process Especially, in international conflicts, news obliges using some organized attempts on the media typically give much more weight to side of governments because they cannot count official sources in their country due to partly on being able to simply instrumentalize the the accessibility of information and partly the media.
This situation provides an inevitable messages supplied by officials, but they try to power to government sources to adapt their demonstrate their independence by focusing on preferred frames to an issue and event. In this sense, the media does the war. In fact, the use of official sources and not only provide information, but also may the practice of embedded journalism inevitably become autonomous actors in the political lead to unintended bias and one-sided news process.
In this process, the relationship of the coverage that favors government Hallin Reese convincingly expresses how terms of power struggle to influence the agenda embedded journalism undermines the and make their own frames part of the story, in autonomy of journalists in terms of protection, an effort to influence public opinion leading military logic, one-sided news and McCombs It becomes governments can also create pseudo events of more evident that political rhetoric and news their own which gain media attention.
They management is inevitable instruments of have important resources for professional political actors, will be much more in the near public relations and political marketing that are future. The nature of McQuail They use their technical this relationship has clear consequences on knowledge about the production and impact of what public gets as news. Although there are political messages and arrange the circulation some scholars who believe in informed public of political messages by using the right media opinion may not be desirable in certain at the right time Cook ; Westsituations, it is generally agreed that it is in the Press conferences, press releases with national interest to have an independent press carefully articulated political messages are fostering informed, independent citizen some of the strategies they use for this purpose.
For instance, In his study, Yang At this point, practice of journalism governance and informed citizenship. However, most scholars who studied this relationship clearly showed that the media are Political rhetoric is inevitable part of the news usually passive rather than adversarial, management. The success of any attempt to especially in times of war or international communicate messages to public partly conflicts like terrorism.
The media are also depends on the success of rhetoric. As Lakoff criticized for being susceptible to manipulation It is a key by the powerful groups. As cascade model aspect for political actors to win public and the suggests, although this might be the case for media support for their policies.
Rhetoric deals many situations, there are certain cases when with properties of speech or text, message the media can deviate from dominant frames construction, message source, metaphors or and play an active role. The set of opportunities choices Neuendorf Word choices and constraints for an active role of the media emotional, simple, repetitious, unambiguous, depends on the political, media, and economic culturally resonantthe strategic use of systems in which it occurs as well as the information and linguistic tools, generalization, power, strategy, and motivation factors categorization, and stereotyping are among the expressed in the scope of the model.
In terms of framing, the differently in international conflicts. On evidence for commercial and multiplication of the other hand, the media can play much more channels erodes to some extent strong public central and independent role in domestic service broadcasting and enforces more issues, especially in the election process. This argument is technology emerged media as an autonomous important for its implications on the quality of power in the center of political process information given by the media for being Chadwick The political informed citizen and participative democracy.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE MEDIA AND GOVERNMENT RELATIONSHIP | Yusuf Yuksel - realestateforms.info
This the news content. The argument is that the situation brings a specific set of interaction newspaper owner and editors take into account between political actors and the media in which the commercial and political interests of the political actors aim to attain positive media firm more than quality of papers. In fact, 15 representations and the broadest possible years of uninterrupted support of media giant attention to audiences.
News management and Robert Murdock to Margaret Thatcher during political rhetoric conducted by professionalized her ministerial period in the UK for loosing spin doctors become a strategic political monopoly rules is an example of symbiotic resource for political actors in order to relationship of the media owners and political communicate their messages and circulate their actors Tunstall In the same way, preferred frames Hacker In the use of media for commercial and political addition, government rhetoric and credibility of interests of media owners has been questioned governments become more critical in order to extensively in Turkey.
There are also some convince others to see things as you do and statements of editors of newspapers for the support your goal Entman In addition, the its positive and negative effect on the media profit orientation influences the content of and government relationship. In this way, the media become more autonomous In this sense, this orientation has some from government and political institution less implications for the media and government press-party parallelismwhile becoming more relationships and the information public gets.
At this point, while some decrease in quality, increase bias and scholars emphasize the importance of being manipulation of public by news management. In this sense, all the models their preferred frames. Thirdly, the of this relationship, including cascade, that concentration of media ownership can lead to emerged in a specific national context cannot decrease in public interest and watchdog be applied easily to another country.
For orientations of the media and become more instance, the role and power of government and status quo, profit and business oriented bureaucracy is different in various countries McChesney In addition, increasing due to political system. In addition, the place competition might loose the standards of and power of the media in the system as well as confirmation, accuracy, and fairness. In fact, the norms of journalism i.
However, strong autonomous both selection of news and framing criteria. On public broadcasting like BBC culture in some another level, although the level of power of countries and monopoly laws balance the actors, their ability and methods to adapt weaknesses of commercialism to some extent.
In general, commercial media a value in different contexts. All these seems more independent from pressure differences shape the way these factors express compared to many public broadcasting themselves in a given country and are very organizations, but they have also their own likely to have a decisive impact on the kinds of dependencies.
The controversial relationship between media and government
So, the role public can play in the factor that makes a difference between system and information they get for different systems. As we already mentioned, in deliberation very much influenced in different the U. Ideological or regarding Israel-Palestine conflict, but they do interpretive stance in other countries has also not enjoy the same level of support on their created its own bias towards government policies regarding Syria which suggests limits intervention.
The problems in refugee camps, Lastly, the role of the state in the system criticism of the policies by the members of depends in different countries. The regulations opposition party, the media, and divided public such as libel laws, hate speech laws, ownership support emerged a different dynamics than the laws, professional secrecy laws are stricter in situation in Palestine case.
Similarly, while most of the Western countries McQuail Bush administration was able to get support of The idea of freedom of speech is more strongly elites, the media and public before the War in supported in the U.
However, this idea is Afghanistan, they did not enjoy the same level interpreted in terms of deregulations rather than of support before the War in Iraq. The promoting alternative views and stronger culturally congruent words and images and the democracy on the media Carey