Operation Cyclone - Wikipedia
Technically, the term does not have a necessary connection with war. is/was the relation between the Afghan Mujahideen, the Taliban and the Al Qaeda?. Mujahideen (Arabic: مجاهدين mujāhidīn) is the plural form of mujahid (Arabic: مجاهد ), the term for . This movement became known as the Taliban ("students" in Pashto), Al-Qaeda saw its formative period during this time, and jihadism formed part of relationship between the 3rd Corps and the El Mujahedin detachment was. So-called Islamic State, the Taliban, and al-Qaeda are all radical jihadist movements that have little connection with one another. al qaeda.
Harrison that the U. President Reagan greatly expanded the program as part of the Reagan Doctrine of aiding anti-Soviet resistance movements abroad.
Vicker's strategy was to use a broad mix of weapons, tactics, logistics, along with training programs, to enhance the rebels' ability to fight a guerilla war against the Soviets. His Inter-Services Intelligence ISI was an intermediary for funds distribution, passing of weapons, military training and financial support to Afghan resistance groups. They encouraged the volunteers from the Arab states to join the Afghan resistance in its struggle against the Soviet troops based in Afghanistan.
Reports show civilian personnel from the U.
CIA director William Casey secretly visited Pakistan numerous times to meet with the ISI officers managing the mujahideen,  and personally observed the guerrilla's training on at least one occasion.
Casey wanted to ship subversive propaganda through Afghanistan to the Soviet Union's predominantly Muslim southern republics.
The Pakistanis agreed, and the CIA soon supplied thousands of Korans, as well as books on Soviet atrocities in Uzbekistan and tracts on historical heroes of Uzbek nationalism, according to Pakistani and Western officials. The Stingers were so renowned and deadly that, in the s, the U. This program may have been covertly renewed following the U. Soviet forces suffered over 14, killed and missing, and over 50, wounded. Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula AQAP claimed the attack, and there is evidence that at least one of the gunmen traveled to Yemen, participated in AQ training, and received funding for an attack.
Founded by Osama bin Laden on August 11, after he had gained experience training and organizing opposition against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Al Qaeda has grown to become an organization with affiliates and supporters all over the world, and has carried out some of the most violent and infamous attacks in the last twenty-five years. Osama bin Laden arrived in Afghanistan to join the fighting in The son of an extremely wealthy Saudi businessman, he became an important member of the jihad by providing funding for the movement.
Bin Laden established a presence in the region and built a training camp there that became the elite camp for Afghan Arab mujahideen. It created a safe haven for jihadists where it housed AQ and other Islamist militants, facilitating networking between AQ and other groups. Bin Laden and Azzam established Al Qaeda from the fighters, financial resources, and training and recruiting structures left over from the anti-Soviet war.Hillary Clinton ADMITS The CIA Started & Funded Al Qaeda
Al Qaeda continued to use the mountainous region—including places like Khost, Nangarhar, Paktia, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in Pakistan—as a headquarters for its leadership.
By Augustbin Laden began to let it be known that he intended to have AQ operatives work all over the world, while Azzam preferred to focus on Afghanistan. Azzam died in a car bombing in Novemberreportedly at the hands of rival Egyptians, and left bin Laden to continue undisputed leadership of Al Qaeda. Zawahiri was the leader of an EIJ faction and began to be in constant communication with bin Laden. Their relationship was so strong that many began to consider Zawahiri the deputy head of AQ.
The Saudis joined the U.
He fled the country in and soon moved to Sudan. The group continued training operations near the Afghan-Pakistani border, expanded its connections in Muslim countries, especially Somalia and Yemen, and bought weapons and technical equipment. AQ began to provide equipment, training assistance, and recruits to Islamist insurgencies in the Philippines, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Tajikistan. AQ also reportedly played a role in a number of terrorist attacks throughout the early nineties by training operatives or providing equipment.
AQ operatives allegedly trained the Somali militants that shot down two U. Black Hawk helicopters infor example, and AQ may have provided the explosives used in a car bombing against a Saudi-U. In many cases, it is impossible to prove AQ links to these attacks based on public information alone.
Meanwhile, Sudanese currency had depreciated which, combined with increased pressure on AQ, created financial shortages in the organization.
Although he promised to avoid drawing too much attention, he later gave a highly publicized inflammatory interview to CNN in March He returned to Afghanistan in May where he remained with bin Laden for the next four years. During this time, he still commanded EIJ attacks, and after the Egyptian government continued its crackdown against Islamist groups, Zawahiri was sentenced to death in absentia.
AQ-funded camps trained between 10, and 20, fighters between and While it collaborated with many different organizations and trained thousands of fighters, it kept its core membership small. The act represented a shift from providing training, finances, and equipment to other groups carrying out terrorist attacks, to having full operational control of attacks.
Bin Laden also played a significant personal role, recruiting operatives and playing a large part in target selection. The operatives, including Atta, began to move to the U. However, they largely continued to carry out attacks in their own countries.
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While some AQ affiliates attacked western presence and interests in the Middle East, no affiliate made an attempt to attack the U. AQI continued its disobedience throughout its time as an AQ affiliate.
Instead, they were carried out largely by affiliates or by local actors who were inspired by AQ and other extremist clerics or organizations, and who may have received money and training from AQ. In Octobermilitants from the group Jemaah Islamiyah bombed two Bali nightclubs, killing Jemaah Islamiyah operative Hambali, who reportedly was also counted among AQ leadership, planned the attacks and claimed to have received funding from AQ.
Al Qaeda allegedly sponsored the attack that was carried out by local extremists. The bombers were British by birth, and most visited Pakistan before the attack. Al Qaeda claimed the bombings, but there is no clear evidence that shows that AQ directed the attack.
The next fall, AQAP attempted to bring down several planes through mail bombs. Navy Seals killed him at his Abbottabad hideout in May Ayman al-Zawahiri succeeded him as AQ leader. Under the Obama administration, drone strikes reportedly killed at least thirty-four AQ leaders in Pakistan alone, along with over AQ fighters.
Most of its affiliates did not appear to be planning attacks against the U. The strongholds of AQ leadership—the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, Somalia, and Yemen—remained largely untouched by the clashes and political changes, and the effect of the Arab Spring on potential recruits is hard to measure.
When the commander of al-Nusra denied the merger, Zawahiri supported al-Nusra, saying that the organizations should remain separate. It has taken control of territory in Sunni-majority parts of Yemen while the government largely focuses on fighting the Houthi rebellion in other parts of the country. Yazid was a founder and financial chief of AQ, and also was believed to be third in command of the group behind Zawahiri and bin Laden. He played a vital role in operational planning, especially attacks on Western forces in Afghanistan.
Yazid was killed in May by a U. He was killed by a U. Libi was a Libyan Islamic scholar who played large role in AQ operations. He was reportedly second to Zawahiri when he was killed in a U. S drone strike in North Waziristan. Bin Laden was the Saudi-born founder and leader of Al Qaeda. He supported the Afghan resistance to the Soviet occupation in the s, then began to target the U.
He was killed by U. Navy Seals in May Some argue that Shiites are also apostates, a disagreement that has caused rifts between AQ and its affiliates—for example, AQI targeted Shiites in Iraq against the instructions of bin Laden. According to bin Laden in a tape interview with Al Jazeera in Octoberthe name was thought up by Abu Ebeida El-Banashiri in reference to one of these camps, and means "the foundation" or the "base".
Estimates of core membership are generally less than 1, though second tier membership lies in the thousands to tens of thousands and outer shell support could be up toState Department Foreign Terrorist Organizations: October 8, to Present United Nations: A core group of fundraisers reportedly collected both from donors who knew the eventual destination of their money and those who did not, primarily in the Gulf States, while corrupt employees at charitable organizations siphoned money to AQ.
State Department claimed that Iran allowed AQ to operate a facilitation pipeline through the country in order to move fighters and resources to South Asia and Syria. When bin Laden relocated from Sudan to Afghanistan inhe likely did so with the knowledge of Pakistani officials, and military intelligence officers may even have facilitated his travel and introduced bin Laden to Taliban leaders in Khandahar with the hope that he would open his training camps to Kashmiri militants.
It has claimed responsibility for some attacks in Pakistan, has been suspected of others, and reportedly assists local militant groups that are actively fighting against the Pakistani government. Al Qaeda also has reportedly sought nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, and attempted to purchase weapons-grade uranium as early as It assassinated Ahman Shah Massoud, a powerful anti-Taliban military and political leader in Afghanistan, on September 9, AQ affiliates rarely attempt to attack the U.
Others claim that AQ is not currently planning larger attacks because it is no longer capable, and instead is willing to rely on smaller, more achievable attacks.
Timeline: Taliban in Afghanistan | News | Al Jazeera
Bin Laden personally advocated for followers to focus on education and persuading others to join their cause, rather than political engagement with Islamic political parties. Two truck bombs detonated outside the U. The bombings took place on the 8th anniversary of U. Al Qaeda and the Egyptian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Cole naval ship, detonating a large bomb stored on the watercraft upon impact.